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ABOUT THE EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCE

Earth System as a set of interacting processes operating on a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, rather than as a collection of individual components’.

Recent Articles

  • The distributions of intensity and orientation of maximum shearing stress in typical stress systems at Pachmarhi are plotted on stereographic projections, in order to show the three-dimensional relationships. Mathematical expressions of these relationships as well as graphical methods of evaluation are given. Read More...

  • It is possible to explain the shape of the remarkable Dyke pattern surrounding the Pachmarhi, by an analysis of stresses if a regional-stress system in which the direction of greatest principal pressure was parallel to the line of symmetry exhibited by the Dyke pattern superposed on a localstress system is assumed. Read More...

  • The Denwa, Sonbhadra, Bainganga, and Nagdwari rivers, in the Pachmarhi and Rift alleys substantiate the premise of this paper, that wear-phenomena offer a rational approach to river-bed-profile morphology. Read More...

  • the analysis of form in geomorphology can have several purposes and can be carried out in many different ways. The examples of Diu and Daman coastal spit that have been considered briefly are concerned with aspects of coastal spit formation. Read More...

  • to explain the geomorphic aspects, examples are given from well known Jaypee Groups Dam and hydraulic constructions and Worlds important river project. Morpho logy may be defined as the science of structure or form "and fluvial may be defined as produced by the action of flowing water." Read More...

  • All vegetation on Bee Watershed of the Pachmarhi Experimental Forest was cut during November and December of 2002, and vegetation regrowth was inhibited for two years by periodic application of herbicides. Read More...

  • A method for the representation of bed-load data is given in this paper, in respect of steep mountainous river Denwa. The method is based on the conception that bed-load movement is the movement of bed particles, as governed by the laws of probability. Read More...

  • Drainage channels in the Pachmarhis are preferentially oriented parallel and perpendicular to the direction of tectonic extension. Read More...

  • Fractality of the Denwa drainage basins is shown by their tiling properties with sub basins and inter basin areas. Read More...

  • Tectonical arguments, analogue experiments and numerical experiments all suggest that the internal dynamics of actively deforming collisional mountain ranges are influenced by climate. Read More...

  • Subduction-accretion complexes can be approximated as wedge-shaped continua with a rigid buttress behind and a subducting litho- spheric slab beneath. Read More...

  • A semigraphical method of analysis of large strain based on Nadai's strain components and utilizing a Mohr construction is outlined for problems of interest in structural geology. Finite homogeneous strain theory is applicable to measurement and analysis of strains from geologic features small enough to be included within regions of homogeneous strain. Read More...

  • The Pachmarhis summits, ridges and plateau, indeed all protuberant land forms , are the features actually formed due toTemperature variations due to the formation of the Satpura basin The Perturb bation of the thermal equilibrium, produced by subsidence and sedimentation in the earth's outer layers is investigated by means of two models. Read More...

  • The Rift valleys of the Pachmarhi are tectonic land forms elongated depressions whose origins are primarily tectonic, not erosional. Tectonic forms fault scarps monoclinal scarps are introduced into the Pachmarhi and, until eroded, are easily recognizable. Read More...

  • To understand the Pachmarhi geological stage and its structure, an analytical method is derived, which gives the elastic response of a homogeneous rock layer to two-dimensional distributions of vertical displacement applied along its loner boundary. Read More...

  • This paper presents an introduction to the theory of folding of stratified viscoelastic media under compression and discusses its significance in the context of tectonics and orogenesis. Simplified derivations are given for results obtained earlier by the writer as particular cases of more elaborate theories. Read More...

  • In order to explain the Morphological development of the Pachmarhis, it is useful to establish a model against which the present landscape surface can be compared. Since this up warp occurs in an area, whose planation surfaces have been warped Read More...

  • Abstract-Extending the work of E. M. Anderson, M. K. Hubb ert, and W. Hafner on faulting, the author develop the Hypoth esis that anticlinal folds, thrust faults, and wrench faults can be generated as a result of movement on a large wrench fault such as the Pachmarhi of this concept leads to the conclusion that for any given tectonic area, at least eight directions of wrench faulting and four directions of anticlinal folding and/or thrusting should accommodate the structural elements of that region; these directions should have a more or less symmetrical disposition relative to the direction of the primary compressive stress. Read More...

  • Factors governing the development of wellcharacterized metamorphic zones in orogenic belts, showing moderate to high-pressure regional metamorphism are considered. Features recorded in the rocks concerning: variations of temperature with pressure (both across metamorphic belts and in single rocks), ages of metamorphism and uplift history, are compared with those predicted by the elegant quantitative thermal models of Richardson, England and co-workers. Read More...

  • Chemical characteristics of Deccan basalts, like other continental flood basalts, indicate them to be relatively evolved magmas. Recognition of Deccan basalt as a derivative magma has given rise to speculations regarding the nature of primary magma and its source. Read More...

  • The Drainage system of the Pachmarhis (Crookshank,H,1936, Dongre.N.L.1997,2013) is the most conspicuous one is the high Basalt land scape. Read More...

  • The market in Narayanpur (Bastar) District, Chhattisgarh, India, is analysed from the point of view of its cultural and economic significance as a reflection of social relations in the area. The groups present in Bastar interact in the market more regularly than they do in any other context. Read More...

  • The activity of bedrock-channel incision on the evolution of mountainous topography is a central concept in geomorphology (e.g., Seidl and Dietrich, 1992; Burbank et al., 1996). Considerable attention to rivers incising bedrock in tectonically active landscapes (e.g., Whipple and Tucker, 1999) has led to the use of river morphology in interpreting the scale, magnitude, and timing of rock uplift, for which other evidence is often sparse or equivocal (e.g., Lave´ and Avouac, 2001; Finlayson et al., 2002; Kirby et al., 2003). Read More...

  • Transformation of channel at a River confluence is deduced by replacing the hydraulic geometry relationships into the continuity equation of flow. Read More...

  • Geopolitics is defined as the operating system of a government’s foreign policy that evaluates places beyond its boundaries. Such systems involve evaluation of places beyond the state’s boundaries in terms of its strategic importance and potential threats. It operates at three levels: local, regional and Global. The local level system involves evaluation of neighboring states. The regional level system is required for states that intend to exhibit their powers beyond their neighbors. Read More...

  • The prime theme of this article is consumption as a form of life style. Consumption goods are not merely good edibles but are objects made more or less desirable by the role they play in daily needs Read More...

  • Branching river networks are one of the well-known and recognized features of Earth's landscapes and have also been discovered in the Solar System [1, 2] but the mechanisms that create these patterns and control their spatial scales are rarely understood Read More...

  • In the river networks, branching systems are a basic geomorphic component. Study of drainage patterns rests largely on junction angles (Zernitz 1932). Inspite of early acceptance of regularities in river branching angles (Playfair 1802) and the importance of angles in understanding the situation of drainage networks, very little theoretical work has been done on this topic. Read More...

  • Due to the importance of the process of piracy or capture, in the creation of stream networks in Pachmarhis (India) is tough to evaluate by field or map or field observations. An indirect approach through Pachmarhis is used in this article to investigate capture, with the use of a Pachmarhis model involving capture within rectangular stream networks on a square matrix. Read More...

  • However, body-concepts need to be articulated in conjunction with the spatially embedded process of incorporation, including the actual sensuous interpellations and practices by which the malleability of bodies is turned into the relative firmness of posture and flesh. Lefebvre's account of social space as power-laden and historico-geographically specific revolves around a usually overlooked notion of "formants" (1991: 285-91) that deeply implicate the body and the senses . Read More...

  • Religious phenomena are an important branch of cultural land scape of geography, though its theoretical aspects remain un discussed. Geographers may become more cautious of other approaches to the learning of religion. Whereas phenomenological awareness of the deepness of the religious quest in the human psyche is important, geographers are primarily concerned with religion's societal expression and hence will gain valuable insights through the adoption of an historical materialist approach to the study of religious institutions in class society. Read More...

  • This paper exhibits the relation between the structure of river networks and the features of their geomorphologic importance. The mathematical formulation and connectivity of a drainage network is the subject to relate contributing areas and the network geometry. Read More...

  • In 1863 the New Zealand Southern Monthly Magazine expressed its enthusiasm for Darwin's theory of evolution. Darwinism, so the magazine's readers were told, had cast new light on the process of colonization by showing how a "weak and ill-furnished race" necessarily had "to give way before one which is strong and highly endowed" (quoted in Stenhouse 1999: 83). Darwinism, evidently, suited to perfection the needs of New Zealand imperialists. It enabled the Maori to be represented in the language of savagery and thus to provide scientific legitimacy for the land-hungry settlers who welcomed the prospect of Maori extinction. Read More...

  • Inserting Religion in Geographical Analyses Race, class, and gender generally are accepted as the primary axes of analyses across those disciplines concerned with understanding society. Read More...

  • Abstract. Light is fundamental to religious experience, and its symbolism pervades the geography of sacred landscapes. As sun, fire, ray, color, or attribute of being and place, light serves as a bridge between interpretation of landscape and religious experience. To see the light cast upon places orients believers in otherwise undifferentiated space, grounding them in context of home. As sacred places are created, an inner light outweighs outer darkness, and a spiritual journey commences. Read More...

  • The reflections of energy dissipation on channel behaviors of a river system are investigated. On the basis of local and global opinions of optimality in energy expenses, it is investigated that the relationships between channel geometry, flow velocity, channel bed slope, and stream flow conditions in optimal river systems. Expressions for the rate of energy dissipation per unit channel area are derived as functions of cumulative drainage area and river network parameters. Optimal channel characteristics are developed that satisfy the opinions of local optimality, and provide constant throughout the river network. Read More...

  • The coastlines are composed of about 80% of rocky coasts. These coasts are composed of either consolidated or unconsolidated rocks such as clay (Collins and Sitar, 2008). It is important to be able to predict cliff recession rate as a function of the local forcing parameters and the different underlying physical mechanisms should be understood. Read More...

  • The concept of race has had a powerful effect on Indian scholars and academics. But that is not to say that the idea of race is unique to contemporary India. Indeed, there are ideas of difference, generalised to describe whole communities that are to be found in a variety of ancient Indian texts. Read More...

  • The evolution of bandritic, hierarchical rivers drainage networks are the responses of physical systems to the transport of fluids, substances dissolved in fluids or charge. Such directed networks are efficient transport systems and they have characteristic statistical properties [Banavar, J. R., Maritan, A. and Rinaldo, A. 1999]. It has been postulated that river networks and the landscapes associated with them Read More...

  • The understanding of the long term dynamics of the Earth's topography is based mainly on the results of theoretical analysis and numerical models [Braun and Sam-bridge, 1997; Davy and Crave, 2000; Howard et al., 1994; Kirkby, 1971; Kooi and Beaumont, 1996; Willgoose et al., 1991b], for which few constraints exist to validate the macroscopic evolution, and the characteristics of simulated topographies. Read More...

  • Industrial or domestic Water pollution from human originated activities is a burning problem in so many countries [Tchobanoglous, G. Burton F.L. 1991]. As a result of water pollution, approximately 25 million persons die every year. Developing models to enable to understand how to control and predict water quality is of crucial interest. When assessing the quality of water in a river, there are many factors to be considered: the level of dissolved oxygen; the presence of nitrates, chlorides, phosphates; the level of suspended solids; environmental hormones; chemical oxygen demand, Read More...

  • The main results of the work is presented here, concerning the deterministic model for the river channel formation introduced by A.C. Fowler, N. Kopteva and C. Oakley (2007), Diaz, J.I. Fowler, A. C. Mufioz, A. I and Schiavi, E. (2008) The ingredients of a model are variables describing channel flow and sediment transport, and the mechanism of channel formation arises through an instability, in which locally Read More...

  • The Pachmarhis region of Satpura is an area of active continental shortening. In the previous study of the area, described a series of mountain systems and the associated drainage patterns. By predicting the effect of tectonic activity on drainage patterns, and comparing these with observed patterns, have attempted to constrain the dynamics of fold growth and propagation and, ultimately, the tectonic history of the region Read More...

  • The Bhils are so-called aboriginals of India. This is all that is known about their ancestry. Once they were regarded as Dravidians, closely related to the Gonds. But this opinion has been discarded. The physiognomy and the nature of the Bhils and those of the Dravidians differ too much to allow us to place them in the same racial fold. Read More...

  • Bedrock river channels play an important role in active landscapes: fluvial processes drive erosion by undercutting hill slopes and evacuating the products of mass wasting to depositional basins [Whipple,2004].Fluvial erosion rates and the channel's ability to transport sediment are strongly dependent on the channel geometry, namely, its bed slope and cross-sectional shape. Read More...

  • The idea of 'indigenous people' is an issue of considerable contention in India today. This was hardly so till a few years ago. In fact, social workers, administrators, politicians and even scholars widely used the term to refer to a certain category of people. They hardly felt any unease in the use of native equivalent of this term, viz. "adivasi'. Ghurye had of course some reservation to the use of such terms: the expression he used was 'so-called aborigines'. Read More...

  • “ Cherishing the spirits of all creatures, with whom we are always interconnected, especially honoring the spirits of our departed loved ones, who have not really “died” but continue to live in the subtler planes of light”. Read More...

  • The Bell Metal or Dhokra is one of the earliest methods of metal casting which date back to pre-historic time. This is an excellent piece of Metal Casted image of Gond King of Chhatisgarh Read More...

  • There are more than 400 groups in Indian society which are officially designated as scheduled tribes. These groups have all been undergoing changes. These changes have been observed and described by a variety of persons for nearly 100 years, but their consequences and implications have been seriously misconstrued. The conventional wisdom among anthropologists has been that when a tribe undergoes change through a loss of isolation and through close integration with the wider society, sooner or later, and with unfailing regularity, it becomes a caste. While this may have been true to a greater or lesser extent till the forties, the argument is no longer valid. Read More...

  • The tribalism in peninsular India based on the political and economic characteristics of 'tribal' kingdoms presided over by 'Hindu' kings. These kingdoms were markedly egalitarian with a relatively direct relationship obtaining between the ruler and his tribal subjects, unmediated by the layers of officialdom characteristic of neighbouring Hindu and Muslim kingdoms. This has been typically explained as an evolutionary and historical consequence of ‘primitivism’ reinforced by physical isolation and the operation of exclusionary criteria by Hindu society. Read More...

  • River meandering consequently are the lateral bank shifting which produces sinuous, singlethread channels is inherent to coupled flow and sediment transport in gravel- and sand-bedded channels within a broad range of channel width-to-depth ratios (Parker, G. 1976). Channel planform classification based on field observations qualitatively suggests that meandering depends strongly on channel slope, grain size, bank strength, and sediment supply (Schumm, S.A. 1985; Church, M. 2006). Read More...

  • Meander, threadlike flows are omnipresent features of landscapes on Earth and other planetary bodies (Fig. 1). Meandering is specifically discussed as a result of channel migration processes in meandering rivers (1-9), where flow through a channel with modifiable boundaries and a curved plan form sets up internal flow instabilities that drive spatial patterns of bank erosion and accretion, which change plan form curvature. The physical mechanisms by which a nearly straight channel evolves into a freely meandering planform have been studied intensively and with great success. Read More...

  • The meandering channels’ lateral migration, denoting the complex mechanism of fluid dynamics, sediment transport and bank erosion, has intrigued geomorphologists for many years. Begining from straight channels, alternate bars and pools form which further extends the initiation of meandering. Flow converges to the concave banks and diverges at the convex banks due to the centrifugal force that generates a spiral flow in meandering channels. Read More...

  • Alluvial rivers usually exhibit quite complex plan-forms characterized by a wide variety of alternating bends that have attracted the interest of a large number of researchers ( Seminara 2006, ). Much less attention has been paid to another striking feature observed in alluvial rivers (see Figure 1), namely the relatively regular spatial variations attained by the channel width. Read More...

  • Before the Yarlung Zangbo leaves China to flow into the Arunachal Pradesh region of India and become the Brahmaputra, it makes a dramatic turn to the south, known as the Great Bend. The fundamental role of Brahmaputra River morpho-dynamics and hydrology for the establishment and evolution of riparian vegetation. The effects of the river band induced processes on the plant communities along a riparian transect. The shape of each function depends on the prevailing meandering mechanism Read More...

  • Uplifted unconformities preserved either in growth strata or as fluvial terraces are commonly exploited as incremental strain markers to infer the kinematics of uplift growth [Daeron et al., 2007; Hubert-Ferrari et al., 2007; Lave and Avouac, 2000; Wilson et al., 2009], but such unconformities are not ubiquitously preserved, nor do they necessarily indicate a unique deformation pathway. Read More...

  • The purpose of this article is put up short account of the formation and institution of the caste system in India. It is manifestly a subject of considerable difficulty, and I am not aware that it has received that fullness of treatment which it deserves. I must, therefore, be pardoned for taking the liberty of be speaking indulgence during the discussion of this most important topic. Read More...

  • Five rock cut temples Know as Pandav Caves. These rock-cut caves have been made in low hill and in front of this exciting monument Buddhist temples caves have been hewn by Buddhist monks. Caves have been created even in 1st century AD. When looking at the architecture of the facades, one of the later times seems more credible. The facade of each cave in adorned with several columns and pilasters with simple adornments. Sometimes it is mentioned that Pandav Cave in Pachmarhi contains valuable painting. Pandav Caves contained medieval paintings which unfortunately are lost now. Satpura ranges though contain many other, more ancient rock shelters. Some of these caves contain paintings left by Stone Age people Read More...

  • Significant developments in the morphodynamics of meandering, single-thread rivers have been influenced through enhanced learnings from geomorphological research of meander dynamics [Hooke, 1995; Gay et a!., 1998; Hooke, 2003; Frothingham and Rhoads,2003; Hooke,2007a; Gautier et al., 2007] and modeling depended on kinematics [Ferguson, 1984] or fluid mechanics (e.g., Ikeda et al. [1981], Blondeaux and Seminara [1985], Crosato [1989], Seminara and Tubino [1992], Howard [1996], Sun et al. [2001], and the recent review of Seminara [2006]. Read More...

  • Men commonly believe that their conscious being will not end at death, but that it will be continued for an indefinite time or forever, long after the frail corporeal envelope which lodged it for a time has mouldered in the dust. This belief in the immortality of the soul, as we call it, is by no means confined to the adherents of the great historical religions, It is held with at least equal confidence by most, if not all, of those peoples of lower culture whom we call savages and barbarians, and there is every reason to think that among them the belief is native. Read More...

  • In many parts of India there exist, as is well known, rude and even savage tribes, differing widely in manners, customs, religion, and not unfrequently even in language, from the great body of the civilised inhabitants. People in this state of society are found only in hilly or mountainous districts, more or less inaccessible to conquest, and by their comparative sterility holding out little temptation to conquest and occupation. Read More...

  • She is a genius of sadness, immersing herself in it, separating its numerous strands, appreciating its subtle nuances. She is a prism through which sadness could be divided into its infinite spectrum. She is a victim of flash floods occurred with maximum ferocity on 17 kilometer long stretch between Gaurikund and Kedarnath (Uttrakhand). Read More...

  • When there is an alteration in the tectonic or climatic forcing on a landscape, hillslopes and channels adjust their form until re-establishing equilibrium with the new boundary conditions. The spatial distribution and response time of this transient adjustment can exert a fundamental Read More...

  • The true spirits of delight, the exaltation, the sense of being more than expected are the touchstone of the highest excellence in my life. Royal Geographical society, London conferred me the eminent Fellowship of the Society. The backbone of the society is its Fellowship, which is made up of the most eminent Earth Scientist (Geographers) from the world; fellows are elected through a peer review process that culminates in a vote by existing Fellows on the basis of excellence in Earth Science and Geosciences. Read More...

  • Fluvial incision drives the evolution of erosional landscapes. As the incision rate within the channel is generally assumed to be a function of its geometry, and the landscape evolves toward a steady state in which the lowering of the terrain by erosion is equal to rock uplift, the rivers will adjust their form to the tectonic forcing. Although several recent field studies [Harbor, 1998; Snyder et al., 2000, 2003; Lave and Avouac, 2001; Duvall et al., 2004; Finnegan et al., 2005] made significant advances, the understanding of the relationships between channel width, depth, cross-sectional form and area, and incision rate is limited and qualitative. Read More...

  • Landslides play a vital role in denudational processes in eroding drainage basins. There is significant motivation to understand the controls of landslide initiation, as well as the timing, location, and size of landslides. In this article, it is studied stream and hillslope interactions in a controlled experimental drainage basin. It is tested the hypothesis that stream incision driven by migrating knickpoints can apply a spatial and temporal pattern on landslide distributions Read More...

  • The formation of bounding levees by deposition from sediment-laden flows debouching into open water, and the resulting self channelization of these flows, is a basic geomorphological process that extends channel networks, builds deltas, and constructs sedimentary records in both lacustrine and coastal settings. In his experiments Bates [1953] advanced the hydrodynamic analogy Read More...

  • A number of mountain belts on earth result from superimposed orogenies. The reason to treat the Sonawani Nappes is contribution to the earth science of Balaghat, India. The great Geologist Burton (1912) had traced the Sonawani Nappe and given a geological name after the village Sonawani (21° 55’ 7. 88" N 79°52’7.97” E). Read More...

  • The processes related to magma ascent from source zones towards emplacement sites of magmatic intrusions in the upper crust constitute a major subject of interest in Earth sciences, especially in terms of understanding intra-crustal differentiation. In particular, the mechanism leading Read More...

  • [2] Three-dimensional numerical modeling is an important technique for study of the coupled tectono-geomorphic evolution of mountain belts. The most successful ideas to originate from numerical modeling are the concept of steady-state mountain belts: rapidly-uplifting mountains may increase in relief until the topography and exhumation become time-independent [Willett, 1999; Willett et al., 2001; Batt, 2001]. Read More...

  • The growth of relief in active tectonic areas of Pathalkot of the Pachmarhi (India) is mainly controls by the interaction between tectonic and surface processes. The study of long-lived morphologic markers formed by these interactions can help in quantifying the competing effects of tectonics. This regions experiencing active extension of the Dudhi river-long profiles and faceted spurs can help in understanding the development of mountainous topography along normal fault scarps. In this study it is developed analogue experiments that simulate the morphologic evolution of a mountain range bounded by a normal fault. The analysis of the modelled catchments allows comparing with a natural case. Read More...

  • The San Andreas fault in California marks the meeting of the Pacific and North American tectonic plates. Earth's tectonic plates may have taken as long as 1 billion years to form..The plates — interlocking slabs of crust that float on Earth's viscous upper mantle — were created by a process similar to the subduction seen today when one plate dives below another. Read More...

  • Cyber crime is becoming more of a problem for internet users, with hackers developing new skills constantly, making it challenging for particularly sensitive information to be kept away from those who aim to capture it and use it in detrimental ways. Read More...

  • The Nober erratic are classic Geomorphologic feature from the glaciations of Northern England, one of the several hundred erratics which are spread across a low ridge at Norber, having been dumped there by a glacier which transported them from nearby Crummack Dale. This one sits nicely on a limestone plinth, and there is a theory that the erratics have protected the limestone underneath them from erosion. However there is some debate as to the natural erosion rate of the limestone compared to that which is protected. (Drury,2015) Read More...

  • The bed of Chandan River before reaching Nahlesara Dam - Balaghat, India. Nearly this gravel-bed river are frequently arranged into patches of distinct grain size and sorting. Some of these patches have been observed to persist over timescales of decades, while others are able to freely move downstream. Bed surface heterogeneity may also be a primary control on sediment transport rates, and because bed material exerts a strong control on the near bed hydraulic environment, patches may have important implications for aquatic ecology. Read More...

  • The featured photo is an ancient volcano/ring dike that is the Patalkot Mountain and a natural phenomonon called Columnar jointing, when the flow of lava cools at an even rate and fractures forming these perfect columns that seem chiseled to perfection. I found them while hiking along a ridge on the Bald Knob Cut-off trail and a sign highlights the rare process. There is only a handful of locations on earth where this has happened (125 Ma). Read More...

  • What if on the shoes of a suspect who claims never to have encountered to these sediments. The magnified samples could prove that he is lying, and followed to two localities. The first sample are grey sediment with lots of large quartz and mica fragments, a very heterogeneous sediment deposited in an instable environment, there are also no organic remains in it. The second sample is composed almost of eroded quartz grains, coated with a thin layer of reddish iron oxides - the lack of other minerals is a result of strong chemical erosion, there are also some organic remains. There is forensic evidence against the suspect that he has been on the spot where crime occurred. Read More...

  • The Volcano Colima is located approximately 100 kilometers from the Pacific coast in southwestern Mexico. It measures 3860 meters and has a five-million-year history of volcanic activity. Colima is assessed even as one of the most dangerous volcanoes worldwide. In recent years, the volcano has erupted frequently and spat in recent months have often an ash cloud in the sky. Now the surrounding villages had to be evacuated again. Read More...

  • The Kotri River flows in-between Abujhmarh hills of Bastar, India. The highland zone contains what is often called rough country, consisting to a large extent of rugged hills, mountains, and eroded areas frequently broken by valleys and plains. The highest elevations in the Abujhmarh are in the highland zone; the highest point is at 843 m, located in the highlands. The highland zone is cooler than the lowland zone, and receives more rainfall and less sunlight. In many places farming is impossible. Even where it is feasible, the soil is often thin and stony, with a hard rock formation below. Rainwater often cannot escape readily, so many areas tend to be waterlogged. Read More...

  • Fault segment of the San Andreas dendritic faults.: Vertical strokes define the linear extent of a fracture; fractures with greater length release more energy. Evanescent persistent clusters can be identified. After a long time this pattern is replaced by lattice-wide periodic fractures. The dendritic nature of the network of secondary faults associate with plate boundaries and a possibly tegular character of the space between elements of the network. Read More...

  • Mahua (Madhuca indica Gmel) is common in the Abujhmar hills, where consequently Mahua spirit is distilled or drunk, where it does occur, the Marias collects its flowers and fruits eagerly. Read More...

  • The Nibra River after debouching from narrow old basalt gorge located in dense forested area. .It is observed that the impact rate scales linearly with the product of the near-bed sediment concentration and the impact velocity and particles impact the bed because of gravitational settling and advection by turbulent eddies. Read More...

  • Typical mountain river Gudra conditions and predicts that alluvial cover oscillates between complete and negligible incision reduction. In this intermittent regime the long-term cover effect is mainly set by the fraction of time spent in full cover, and the present-day extent of alluvial cover is not representative of long-term dynamics. Read More...

  • Alabama is beautiful throughout the year but especially in the fall. As the greens of summer surrender to glittering yellow poplars, scarlet dogwoods, orange maples and golden hickories, Alabama unfolds its patchwork quilt of color. This blend of brilliant autumn foliage, coupled with cooler temperatures and an occasional gentle breeze, makes for an unforgettable experience. Fall colors will begin showing in the mountains of North Alabama in early October and then sweep across the region. Colors will be at their peak from late October to early November. Read More...

  • The incision of bedrock channels is one of the key processes that govern the formation and evolution of mountain ranges (Anderson, 1994; Howard, 1994; Whipple and Tucker, 1999). Long-term averaged incision rates can take values from 0.02 to 14 mm yr-1 (see, for instance, the review by Lague, 2014). Read More...

  • The landscape topographic evolution of many tectonically active regions is arguably dominated by the rates and patterns of bedrock channel incision [Stock and Montgomery, 1999; Snyder et al., 2000; Whipple et al., 2000a, 2000b]. Read More...

  • The Nibra River of Abujhmarh, India is conduits for the transport of both water and sediment through eroding landscapes. The sediment load of a river may both enable and inhibit fluvial erosion in incompletely understood ways. The slopes of incising channels dominantly adjust to transport sediment, to erode bedrock Read More...

  • Longitudinal elevation profiles in rivers are generally concave down for a short distance from the drainage divide and are then concave up over the rest of the profile. This has generally been interpreted as due to a change in process dominance between essentially diffusive processes near divides and fluvial processes that dominate once discharge values become large enough. There have been many efforts to explain the shapes of these profiles from physical and empirical laws. This paper provides a concise review of three different derivations for the shapes of longitudinal profiles and then briefly compares them to observed profiles for the Ngduari Rift of Pachmarhi,India.. Read More...

  • Dr N. L. Dongre, the spark of genius, the inner fire, and most important thing mankind possesses. He is a fountain of energy. The mind, talent, and creativity he brings to his life and the live of people he love. When any one learns to tape this source, will truly has defeated. As Bertrand Russell said- Good Nature is, of all moral qualities, the one that the word needs most, and good nature is the result of ease and security, not of a life of arduous struggle. This is evidently approved for Dongre. Read More...

  • Dear Dr. Dongre, 03 December, 2003 I could not sleep with agony and sorrow. It’s too pathetic. There were young, middle-aged and even elderly women in the Gohati-Dadar Express train. Their silver wiry hair and wrinkled faces scoured by time and trouble, having almost a grotesque, certainly a pathetic appearance in such a jaunty situation. The glance that flickered between them had been a wordless message of agony, but in some indescribable fashion, it had seemed even then that obscurely, everything was unknown and had been accepted, accepted finally and absolutely in the depth of their unconsciousness.. Read More...

  • Channel incision into bedrock plays an important role in orogenesis by setting the lower boundaries of hillslopes. The longitudinal profiles of bedrock channels constitute a primary component of the relief structure of mountainous drainage basins and thus channel incision limits the elevation of peaks and ridges [Whipple and Tucker, 1999]. Despite the need for physical understanding of various bedrock incision processes that drive landscape evolution, relatively little research has focused on a fully mechanistic or physically based model of incision [e.g., Sklar and Dietrich, 2004; Lamb et al., 2008]. Read More...

  • River incision into bedrock is one of the fundamental drivers of landscape evolution and propagates climatic and tectonic signals throughout drainage networks. Incision into rock occurs relatively slowly and during large infrequent events making it difficult to investigate mechanistically. Read More...

  • Rapid mountain river incision through bedrock is an inherently stochastic process resulting from the long-term summation of flow and sediment discharge events at highly variable rates and frequency [Hartshorn et al., 2002; Howard, 1998; Turowski et al., 2008b]. While the actual incision processes remain difficult to apprehend in situ and are the subject of ongoing research [Hancock et al., 1998; Hartshorn et al., 2002; Lamb et al., 2008; Sklar and Dietrich, 2004; Turowski et al., 2007], there is no ambiguity on the inhibiting effect of a thick alluvial cover (several meters) on bed incision. Read More...

  • During the last decade, there has been a rapid advancement in the development of models of mountain landscape evolution. These models have contributed to the understanding of the fundamental mechanisms underlying landscape evolution [e.g., Howard, 1994; Tucker and Slingerland, 1994; Whipple and Tucker, 2002; Sklar and Dietrich, 2004; Gasparini et al., 2006; Lamb et al., 2008]. Bedrock incision processes are believed to play important roles in the evolution of Mountain Rivers and their associated hillslopes. Read More...

  • Landscape evolution models simulate how the earth surface evolves in response to different driving forces including tectonics, climatic variability and human activity. Landscape evolution models are integrative as they amalgamate empirical data and conceptual models into a set of mathematical equations that can be used to reconstruct or predict terrestrial landscape evolution and corresponding sediment fluxes (Howard, 1994). Read More...

  • The copper nuggets from Malanjkhand Copper mine in Balaghat are found in this size. Image of-elements found could sharpen a stick to defend himself; we have realized the importance of good quality tools in making our life easier and more beautiful. In our search for better and better tools and weapons, wood gave way to rocks tied to sticks that were in turn replaced by Copper chiseled pieces glued and fastened to hardy handles. Whole communities came to rely on those that could turn their hand to working stone, to people such as Otzi. Read More...

  • According to Sir John Evans the Gungeria hoard is "the most impotent discovery of instruments of copper yet recorded in the old world” The locality lies much further south than the others. In 1870 no less than 424 hammered copper implements, made of practically pure metal, weighing collectively 829 pounds; (376.28 gram) and 102 thin silver plates, weighing 8 tolas (938.93gram) were discovered here. “The copper implements were extremely varied in form, principally consisting of flat celts of many different shapes. Read More...

  • The formation of landscapes is driven by tectonics and climate, and often profoundly influenced by lithology, the substrate on which tectonic and climate forces act to sculpt Earth's surface. Much of our interpretation of landscapes, and their relationship to climatic and tectonic forces, employs concepts of landscape equilibrium, or steady state. Read More...

  • The incision of a river into bedrock involves dynamic erosive processes which cannot be sufficiently analyzed totally in the field. The inappreciable amount of resistant bedrock erosion that occurs within the time available for actual field measurements of incision prevents the derivation of truly meaningful results from such endeavors. Moreover, the alluvial fill found in nearly all valleys obscures the configuration of the bedrock-alluvium interface that constitutes the valley floor. Although some information is available from scattered dam site excavations, bedrock placers, and geophysical surveys, the morphologic details of such interfaces are essentially unknown. Hence, an investigator can only infer the nature of this erosional phenomenon from channel and valley form. Read More...

  • The fluvial system responds to changing tectonic and climatic boundary conditions by internally changing the pattern of erosion, sediment transport, and relief. This is mostly understood through a series of coupled interactions acting to bring the fluvial system to a topographic and erosive equilibrium with respect to the external conditions, whereby fluvial incision balances tectonic rock uplift [Willett and Brandon, 2002, and references therein]. Read More...

  • Votive terracotta figures found in the districts of Bastar, Jhabua, Surguja, Raigarh, Balaghat, and Mandla in India. Read More...

  • The purpose of this article is put up short account of the formation and institution of the caste system in India. Read More...

  • The culture of community houses among tribes of India has aroused the interest of anthropologists ever since the knowledge of the earliest accounts Read More...

  • During old stone (upper Paleolithic) age, man invented stone implements which helped him to develop cave and rock shelter sculpture and painting. Read More...

  • Men commonly believe that their conscious being will not end at death, but that it will be continued for an indefinite time or forever, Read More...

  • In many parts of India there exist, as is well known, rude and even savage tribes, differing widely in manners, customs Read More...

  • The term, Dome has been used in a simple topographic sense for rounded mountain tops Domes are anti-formal structures produced, at least in part, by upward-directed forces. They are circular or elliptical in outline shape and range from several kilometers to several hundred kilometers in width and length. Many tectonic processes create domes. In the Pachmarhis, uplifted blocks of crystalline basement have folded overlying sedimentary rocks into elongate domes in the Pachmarhi and deep-seated tectonic processes have created regional domes like the Dhupgarh, Mahadeva, Chauragarh, Pachmarhi hills, Belkandhar, Tamia, Kalapahar and Patalkot. Read More...

  • As particles of bed-load move downstream, their size or weight is reduced by abrasion or wear, collision and solution. The most important of these factors is abrasion, for which Sternberg (1933) developed a law that has been verified experimentally by Schoklitsch (1938). The reduction in weight of a stone or particle as it travels downstream should be proportional to the work done against friction along the bed. Read More...

  • The science of fluvial morphology has developed from two roots, which have been largely independent of each other. The most vigorous root is in the science of geomorphology, where the principal originators were the geologists, Powell, J. W.(1875) Gilbert, G. K. (1887) and Davis, W. M. (1909) who worked in the latter part of the past century and early part of the present one. Read More...

  • A method for the representation of bed-load data is given in this paper, in respect of steep mountainous river Denwa. The method is based on the conception that bed-load movement is the movement of bed particles, as governed by the laws of probability. By means of this method, an equation is obtained, which describes a great number of experiments in channels with uniform beds. A group of experiments conducted on sand mixtures, provides material for describing another application of the method. Read More...

  • Drainage channels in the Pachmarhis are preferentially oriented parallel and perpendicular to the direction of tectonic extension. This pattern has been variably attributed to such causes as tectonic tilting during extension, channel elongation by slip along the range-bounding detachment fault, and the exploitation of extensio Read More...

  • A considerable part of the Denwa river of the Pachmarhis (Satpura) rift system originated in two main series of fractures, following the same lines but separated by a prolonged period of intermittent continental uplift and regional planation Read More...

  • In order to investigate the development of structures at scales, smaller than that of an entire belt, I examined aspects of the mechanics of fold-and-thrust belts in cross section using an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian frictional-plastic ?nite- element model. A series of models, beginning with the deformation of a thick uniform layer above a thin weak layer on a ?xed base, sequentially illustrates the effects of including ?exural isostatic subsidence, strain-softening, multiple layers of strong and very weak materials, and ?nally erosion and sedimentation. Read More...

  • A semigraphical method of analysis of large strain based on Nadai's strain components and utilizing a Mohr construction is outlined for problems of interest in structural geology. Finite homogeneous strain theory is applicable to measurement and analysis of strains from geologic features small enough to be included within regions of homogeneous strain. Read More...

  • The Pachmarhis summits, ridges and plateau, indeed all protuberant land forms , are the features actually formed due to temperature variations due to the formation of the Satpura basin The perturbation of the thermal equilibrium, produced by subsidence and sedimentation in the earth's outer layers is investigated by means of two models. In one the heat reaching the surface is assumed to come from the deep interior, in the other, to be generated in the crust. Read More...

  • I have developed D reactive transport model to examine how tectonic uplift and climate (i.e., temperature and soil water flow rate) control silicate vs. carbonate weathering at the soil profile scale. I will use the model to identify Earth surface conditions that maximize silicate weathering. I also examine fundamental chemical weathering phenomena, such as reaction front propagation and regolith production Read More...

  • While the rivers of the Pachmarhi tectonic landscape are largely consequent, following courses through relatively downthrown basins and fault angles, there are usually rivers that have cut gorges across upheaved blocks, Though such courses may have been first taken on covering strata and are then, strictly speaking, superposed where they are cut down into underlying rocks, gorges across mountain blocks are in the main of antecedent origin. Read More...

  • To understand the Pachmarhi geological stage and its structure, an analytical method is derived, which gives the elastic response of a homogeneous rock layer to two-dimensional distributions of vertical displacement applied along its loner boundary. Read More...

  • This paper presents an introduction to the theory of folding of stratified viscoelastic media under compression and discusses its significance in the context of tectonics and orogenesis. Simplified derivations are given for results obtained earlier by the writer as particular cases of more elaborate theories. Read More...

  • Vision creativity is a challenging task as it aims to build future scenarios and link the present with the future. It is very true that without vision, cultures, communities and civilizations perish. Read More...

  • - Extending the work of E. M. Anderson, M. K. Hubbert, and W. Hafner on faulting, the author develop the hypothesis that anticlinal folds, thrust faults, and wrench faults can be generated as a result of movement on a large wrench fault such as the Pachmarhi of this concept leads to the conclusion that for any given tectonic area, at least eight directions of wrench faulting and four directions of anticlinal folding and/or thrusting should accommodate the structural elements of that region; these directions should have a more or less symmetrical disposition relative to the direction of the primary compressive stress. Read More...

  • At some early span of life in Dr. N.L. Dongre’s long carrier, more than three decades of it spent at the Indian Police Service. He was a renowned Police Officer of Madhya Pradesh and Indian Police Service. This happened because he is the best-the most eloquent, the most sharp-eyed, and incisive, and certainly a person of exceptionally great ability. Emeritus Professor Subhash Chandra Mukhopadhyay, D.Sc (HOD, Department of Geography, Kolkata University) put it after the award of Doctor of Letters Degree to Dr. Dongre- “Geography received an honoured guest, brilliant scholar, very unusually talented pragmatic and intellectually curious person.” Read More...

  • Factors governing the development of well-characterized metamorphic zones in orogenic belts, showing moderate to high-pressure regional metamorphism are considered. Features recorded in the rocks concerning: variations of temperature with pressure (both across metamorphic belts and in single rocks), ages of metamorphism and uplift history, are compared with those predicted by the elegant quantitative thermal models of Richardson, England and co-workers. Read More...

  • THE shocking incident of the beating and molestation of a young woman by a mob in Guwahati in Assam on July 9 has exposed the ugly underbelly of modern, globalised India, where women face violence, covertly and overtly, at home and outside. The incident has also exposed the lackadaisical manner in which these crimes are treated by the authorities and the general public, and subjected to all kinds of interpretations, which eventually deflects attention from the real issues behind the violent manifestation of and escalation in such crimes. Read More...

  • Chemical characteristics of Deccan basalts, like other continental flood basalts, indicate them to be relatively evolved magmas. Recognition of Deccan basalt as a derivative magma has given rise to speculations regarding the nature of primary magma and its source. The present paper projects, picrite and as prospective primary magma types which might evolve to Deccan basalt composition. Some recent petro genetic models for Deccan basalt are constrained by extensive development of sub continental source. Although an apparent similarity of Deccan basalts has been suggested, the generation of unmodified primary Deccan magma with typical depleted trace element geochemistry and isotopic composition has not been documented within the volcanic province. Read More...

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